Samuel Boston Lathan

Confederate Civil War Soldier, Co. D, 17th South Carolina Infantry

Samuel Boston Lathan was an educator, businessman, and a Civil War veteran. His miraculous recovery from wounds suffered at the Battle of South Mountain during the Antietam campaign is included below. Also, included is a detailed account from official captured Confederate documents of his war record. Nicknamed the "Boss", he was variously known as Chester County's, "Grand Old Man" and "First Citizen." He was Chester County's last surviving Confederate Veteran and the oldest Royal Arch a Mason in South Carolina. He had joined the order in Charleston in 1872. He was a recognized authority on up-country South Carolina history. He received an honorary Doctor of Literature from Erskine College in 1934. He was a member of the first literary society organized in Chester, which was know as "The Chautauqua Society", and he taught the ladies Sunday School Class in the ARP Church for 64 years. He served the ARP Church four years as one of the first deacons and 56 years as a ruling elder.

He was educated at the A. C. Elder School in Blackstock, South Carolina. The war stopped his preparation to study law at the College of South Carolina, now University of South Carolina. After the war he taught school at Blackstock for one year, then at Gastonia two years and McConnellsville three years and Blairsville one year. He then was elected Principal of the Vineville, Ga. schools, but resigned after one year due to illness.

He came to Chester, September 1, 1872, at age 30 and remained a resident for 67 years. After marriage, the Lathans lived at 136 Saluda Street in an antebellum cottage believed to have been built by Mr. Frank Nail. Sometime later they moved to another house on Saluda Street closer to town where the Spratt Savings and Loan Building now stands.

He began his business career as a bookkeeper for Wylie, Roddey & Agurs Mercantile for 3 years and for George Melton, a cotton factor, for 1 year. He then became the local agent for the Richmond and Danville R.R.(1876-1879). He was a partner in W. Holmes Harden & Co. until 1884 when he became Secy. Treasure of Chester Gingham Mills and the Catawba Mill. In 1920, he became manager of the Chester County Farmer's Warehouse Co. and was the outstanding cotton factor of Chester.

He enlisted in the Confederate Army in 1861. In March of 1862 he joined Company "D", 17th Infantry Regiment, South Carolina Volunteers. His company commander was Captain Beaty, a Winnsboro merchant, and the Regiment was commanded by former Governor John H. Means. His first duty was along the coast of South Carolina. In May 1862, he was ordered to Virginia and fought in the battles of Malvern Hill (near Richmond), the Rappahannock River (August 23, 1862), and then Second Battle of Manassas (August 30, 1862).

During the Maryland Campaign, he was wounded in the thigh at South Mountain (Boonsboro/Antietam) on September 14, 1862. He was left on the battlefield for a week and was then taken prisoner by Union forces and transported to Frederick Town, Md. (Frederick, Md.), where he remained two weeks. Two ladies from Baltimore, Misses Cook and Brandon, got permission from Federal officials to take him to Baltimore to the home of Charles Pepar, 814 West Baltimore St., Baltimore, Md., where he recuperated three months. He was then exchanged. He later wrote a newspaper article, " A Baltimore Christmas in 1862", about his experience. This article was published in the Chester Reporter, December 22, 1938, and re-published in the Baltimore Sun, December 25, 1938.

To see more detail about the Battle of South Mountain, Maryland please visit my Civil War page on South Mountain. It contains a description Pvt. Samuel Boston Lathan's part of this battle with text, photos of the area and a troop movement map. Click this text to go to the South Mountain Page.

Some versions of his war service show him rejoining his regiment at Wilmington, NC. and then being transferred to John's Island, SC, where he did picket duty and then later campaigning with the regiment at Petersburg, VA. This version also shows that he was sent to MS. as part of Gen. Joes. Johnson's army as it fell back from Vicksburg and fought around Jackson, MS. It also indicates that the brigade was sent to Savannah and then to Charleston.

Although some of this is correct, facts indicate a different version of his participation in the last year or so of the Confederacy. His writings and Confederate records indicate that after his initial recovery from his wound he went to Wilmington during this time period but not for the purpose of rejoining his regiment. Rather, he went to help nurse his brother William James Lathan who was sick and in the hospital. During this time period Confederate records show that, due to his injury, he was assigned to a Major Gary in the Commissary.

In regard to Samuel Boston Lathan rejoining the 17th S.C. Vol. Inf. during the Vicksburg Campaign; records indicate that he did rejoin the unit for this campaign. It is unclear to me the exact order of events but Samuel Boston Lathan stated in his personal writings that he rejoin his regiment for a time during its campaigning around Jackson, MS. However, both his own words and Confederate records indicate that he was assigned to the Commissary at the ending of the war. In his personal recollections he states clearly that during the last part of Sherman's march across the south he was stationed in the Commissary. Confederate records mentioned show that during the evacuation of Charleston he was assigned to Capt. H. H. Sams of the Commissary, Rhett's Brigade. During the dash to escape Sherman's army, and in an attempt to relieve Lee who was trapped in Petersburg, Virginia, he was part of a couple of skirmishes. He states in his writings that during one such fight he was briefly on the firing line but that during the second he was ordered to attend the wagon train. He states that during these final days of the war he was always part of a commissary outfit attached to Johnson's army. Both he in his writings, and Confederate records, show him with Gen. Joes. Johnson's army when it was forced to surrender. According to Samuel Boston Lathan's writings, his unit with its supply train was near Raleigh, N.C. at the time of the surrender. His surrender is recorded on U.S. government Parole documents on file at the National Archives as having taken place at Greensboro, N.C.

In his later years he enjoyed sharing many interesting accounts of his war experiences as well as reminiscences of his boyhood days in Blackstock and the early history of Chester (see below). Many articles written by him appeared in the local newspaper. He died at his home and his funeral was held in the ARP Church with his pastor, Dr. Joseph L. Grier, conducting the service, assisted by Dr. John McSween, pastor of Purity Presbyterian Church.

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The Transcribed
Service Record
Of
PVT. SAMUEL BOSTON LATHAN
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S. B. Lathan enlisted in Co. D, 17th South Carolina Volunteer Infantry on March 19, 1862 at Camp Pillow. His company commander was Capt. Beaty. Earlier campaigning during 1862 does not show up in records captured by U.S. Army forces. However, the rest of the 17th Inf. Reg't. was in heavy combat at the Second Battle of Manassas, Virginia. This is shown in various battle maps now owned by the U. S. Interior Department's National Park Service and available at the Prince William County Public Library, Bull Run Branch, in Manassas, Virginia. It is also confirmed by his personal account of the battle. They were part of Evans' Brigade and spent most of the battle on or near Chinn Ridge, named for the Chinn family whose farm the ridge ran across. The 17th Inf. Reg't. spent the early part of the battle held in reserve for Hood's Div. Later, Gen. Evans, had Gen. Hood arrested, put under guard and he then assumed command of the division. This was supposedly done by order of Gen. Rob't. E. Lee but no records of any order can be found. They had already been in heavy skirmishing but were now put on the front line while pushing the Union forces off Chinn Ridge. The battle raged back and forth, but in the end the Union forces could not hold the field and were having their flanks pushed in to the point that their main line of battle had been compressed to about half its original size and withdrew from the ridge. During the fighting the 17th Inf. suffered so many casualties that in effect it ceased to exist. The 17th Inf. Reg't. went into battle with 304 effectives and at the end of the battle had suffered 29 killed and 161 wounded. The exact numbers may vary by source but the effect on the unit was the same. Two thirds of the regiment was out of service. After the battle the 17th Inf. Reg't. withdrew behind Chinn Ridge and camped near a stream, probably Young's Run, sometimes called Chinn Run.

According to existing Confederate records the 17th Inf. Reg't's next major engagement was the Battle of Antietam, Maryland, also known as the battle of Sharpsburg, Maryland. During this engagement the 17th Inf. Reg't. was assigned to hold back the Union forces as they attempted to cross South Mountain near Boonesboro, Maryland. Some sources refer to this as the Battle of Boonesboro, others the Battle of South Mountain. Samuel Boston Lathan was wounded and taken prisoner and according to Muster Rolls was listed as, "still in the hands of the enemy," until paroled by the Office of the Provost Marshal General, Army of the Potomac, on September 23, 1862, about a week after the battle. This parole seems rather early but may have been because of his having been taken in and cared for by some ladies from Frederick, Md. (see below). Some sources say that he laid on the battlefield unattended for three weeks but the Union records and his own writings indicate about one week. After this he was taken by some local women to Frederick, Md. where he remained another two weeks.

Family legend has it that he was soon in the hands of friends who had him transferred to Baltimore and cared for by their family doctor at their expense. In fact, there is an account of his spending a, "Baltimore Christmas". Union records show him being transferred from Fort McHenry, Maryland, in Baltimore, to Fort Monroe, VA. On December 29, 1862. Hence, the story of his Christmas in Baltimore. The next entry shows him in General Hospital Petersburg, Virginia on January 5, 1863 with an injury to his left thigh. The complaint line is hard to read but appears to say that the wound was ulcerated. This was not uncommon in the days before antibiotics. On March 23, 1863, he is on a list as being in the C.S.A., General Military Hospital, No.4, Wilmington, N.C.

Backing up a little, S. B. Lathan, is shown as having been furloughed by the Medical Examination Board on January 22, 1863, for a period of 50 days. Apparently he then returned to the hospital at Wilmington, N.C. as mentioned above. This turns out to have been at least in part because William James Lathan had requested that Samuel Boston Lathan be sent to nurse him. William James Lathan was, at that time, in this hospital with Typhoid. Samuel Boston Lathan is shown as returned to duty on April 10, 1863. Other records show this as returned to light duty. However, as you will see below he was engaged in some major campaigning after this.

All in all, S. B. Lathan was a very lucky man, he could have ended up in the P. O. W. camp at Point Lookout, Maryland, where many from Antietam including a, J. H. C. Lathan (relationship unknown) died.

His person writings indicate that following his stay at the hospital in Wilmington, N.C. while nursing his sick brother; he returned to the 17th S.C. Vol. Inf. while it campaigned around Jackson, Ms. He states that after this campaign he was returned to the Charleston area and the Commissary Dept. In addition, in February of 1864, he is shown in a requisition to have been issued a pair of shoes and a few days later a more or less complete set of uniforms. He says, on the reason line of the form, that he is detailed to the Commissary Subsistence Department and can not draw clothing through his regular company. A number of records appear showing him detailed to this job through February of 1865. Among the records showing this detail are Company Muster Rolls, letters from Beauregard, Dept. of N.C., S.C., Va., and a letter from the Commander of the Commissary (name unreadable), Mount Pleasant, S.C., October 27, 1864. His person writings show that his organizational and business skills were put to good use by the Commissary Dept. He states that during one period he supervised the butchering of as many as 70 steers each day. It is my feeling that at least some the business skills he showed later in life were developed during this period.

At the end of the war he was paroled at Greensboro, N.C. He is listed as still detailed to the Commissary Department on his parole, "given due to terms of surrender between Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, Commanding Confederate Army and Major General W. T,. Sherman, Commanding United States Army in North Carolina". How did he get from Mount Pleasant to Greensboro, N.C.? His personal account of this states that he was part of the evacuation from Mount Pleasant. The Confederate Army was desperate to relieve Gen. Robt. E. Lee, trapped in Petersburg, Virginia. S. B. Lathan was part of the effort to relieve Lee's troops or at least move the supplies they had closer to Lee. Sherman cut off Johnston's escape route and the plan to relieve the Siege of Petersburg and aid Lee's Army failed. (see above for more detail)

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SAMUEL BOSTON LATHAN'S ACCOUNT
OF HIS WOUNDING AT SOUTH MOUNTAIN, MD,
AND HIS IMPRISONMENT AT FREDRICK CITY AND BALTIMORE, MD.
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On Sabbath morning the Brigade left Funktown and marched back to South Mountain, arriving there about 4 o'clock in the afternoon, and were immediately deployed in line of battle on the crest of the mountain at right angles and to the west of the turnpike. Our right, the 17th SCV, had barely gotten in position when it was attacked by the 127th Pennsylvania. The fighting was terrific, but we held our position until after dark when all the Confederates were withdrawn. All the severely wounded were left on the battlefield and were taken prisoners. It was my misfortune to be among this number. I was wounded about dark and was unable to walk - lay where I fell all night-during which time I suffered the most excruciating thirst it was possible for a person to undergo. Just as we were going into battle, George Jackson, Col., got my canteen to fill with water but never got it to me again as the fight was on before he returned.

Early in morning next day two union soldiers passed by where I was lying. I asked them for some water and they gave me some. Also, one of them filled his canteen with water and gave it to me. I have it yet and prize it highly. I regret I forgot the Yank's name that gave it. About 10 o'clock in the day a Regiment of Yankees - in line of battle passed by where I was lying - and the Surgeon get off his horse, dressed my wound, had the ambulance corps remove me a short distance near a road, gave me a blanket and some hard tack and bacon, and gave me instruction to keep the bandage on my wound moist. I remained here until Thursday morning when, together with several wounded, I was removed to a barn about 300 yards by the reserve ambulance corps. We were given some rations, and those of our own wounded that could walk kept us in water. A great many of the citizens of the surrounding county visited the battle field and would stop and look at us and treated us somewhat similar to (the way) the Pharisees did to the man that fell among thieves near Jericho.

On Sabbath morning September 21st, just one week from the time I was wounded, I was placed in an ambulance and started for Fredrick City. We stopped that night at Middletown. I slept in the ambulance in the streets. The next morning the lady of a house near where the ambulance was standing sent a servant to inquire if I would like to have a cup of coffee. I told her yes and a regular breakfast. She sent out a good breakfast for two as there was another wounded boy in the ambulance with me. He would not eat any of it. I drank both cups of coffee and wrapped up his portion and put it in my haversack for future use. But, we had scarcely gotten out of town before he begged me out of it, saying he would not take it from a Yankee but would from me. I failed to see the difference.

We arrived at Fredrick City about 12 o'clock noon and were placed in an old tanyard building improvised as a hospital. There was a large crowd of ladies from Baltimore there, and they were profuse in their act of kindness, furnishing us with nice clothing and all the delicacies both to eat and drink. I was beset by about a dozen of these ladies wanting the brass buttons off my uniform. I gave them my coat to get the buttons. I have never seen coat or buttons since. However, I got a nice suit in place of it.

After remaining here four days, I had the good fortune to be removed to a special hospital fitted up by the ladies of Baltimore, capable of accommodating 15 patients. Here I fared royally. After remaining here 10 days, two ladies from Baltimore persuaded me to go to Baltimore with them. They promised to get me a nice place to stay in a private home. They made all the arrangements with the Surgeon in charge of the hospital and also with the commandant of the post for my parole. The ambulance was to be at the hospital to take me to the depot in time for me to meet the train. But lo! when the ambulance drove up, the hospital Steward refused to let me go. The ladies, after waiting at the RR station to nearly the last minute for the ambulance, came to the hospital to see what was the matter, blessed out the Steward, and placed me in the ambulance and got in themselves. We hurried to the station but the train was gone. They paid the driver to take us to Monacasy Junction 4 miles to endeavor to catch the train on the B & O RR, but got there too late.

We went to a farm house and put up with the proprietor until the next evening. I think the gentleman of the house was favorably inclined to the Confederacy and did not want it known that I was a Confederate prisoner for he might get into trouble. The next evening (Sabbath) we left our host and got to the station in ample time for the train. A Regiment of troops were camped at the station - I don't think I ever heard as much profanity use in the same time as I did by these soldiers while sitting at the station. I could see the grounds we had camped on only a few days before. Then the stores were all closed and the county looked deserted. Now it was all life. Two Yankee soldiers carried me in the train (I could not walk much) and I got a seat next to my two lady friends. I suffered a great deal from my wound, owing to being forced to keep my limb in a cramped-up position. I was also annoyed by some of the passengers wanting to know if I was sick and, if so, what was the matter. This, however, was soon brought to a quietus by one of the ladies telling a very inquisitive person that she was afraid her cousin (as that was what they called me) was taking small pox.

I arrived at Baltimore about 9 o'clock (Sabbath night) and drove directly to the residence of Chas. N. Pepar, 814 West Baltimore St., who were awaiting our arrival. I was taken to my room after a short while.

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Works Progress Administration
Writers Project Interview on
June 28, 1938 in Winnsboro, S.C.
Interviewer: W.W. Dixon
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Project #1655
W. W. Dixon
Winnsboro, S. C. 390573

DR. SAMUEL B. LATHAN
96 YEARS OLD. (WHITE)

Dr. Samuel Boston Lathan is the oldest white citizen of Chester County, South Carolina. He lives with an unmarried daughter, Miss Susie Lathan, in a handsome two-story residence on Saluda Street, near the U. S. Post Office in the town of Chester, S. C. He owns the place and is one of the outstanding citizens of the community. By reason of strength, he has attained the Biblical allotment of four score years and ten and exceeded it by sixteen years; yet, from the erectness of his carriage, the texture of his skin, and the timbre of his voice, one would never think that he was a man of that age.

"Well, it will give me pleasure to talk to you of what I remember of life from 1848 to 1938. You know I can't remember when I was born, but that event was recorded by my mother as having taken place on the 2d day of May, 1842, about three miles southeast of Blackstock, S. C., in Fairfield County. My father was a farmer, Samuel M. Lathan. My mother before marriage was Martha Patterson. The result of this marriage was five boys and six girls. I suppose the most distinguished one of the family was my older brother, Robert, born in 1829. He received his education at Erskine College, became a teacher, a school commissioner of York County, and a minister of the Gospel in the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church. His son, Robert, was editor of the Charleston [News Courier?]* and, later, of the Asheville [Citizen?]*.

"I began my education in an old field school near our home, taught by Mr. William Douglass. I was six years old then. All small children commenced in the old blue-backed speller. Beginners paid ten dollars per scholastic year of eight months. When we reached the grammar grades, the tuition was fifteen dollars. In the advanced grades, including Latin and Greek, the tuition was twenty-five dollars. The school hours were from 8 a. m. until 6 p. m. There was an intermission of one hour for dinner and recreation. We carried water from a nearby spring. On a shelf in the schoolroom was a wooden bucket containing drinking water. A drinking gourd hung on a nail above the bucket. It was quite a privilege to get permission to go the spring for a bucket of fresh water during school hours. Our teacher was a Presbyterian and believed in the proverb, 'Spare the rod and spoil the child.' The people of the community had great confidence in his learning, probity, and executive ability. Usually a whipping at school was followed by a sound thrashing at home, for good measure.

"At recess the large boys played catball, and the younger boys and girls played antony-over, marbles, and rolly-holey. April the 1st was dreaded by most rural school teachers*. The pupils would get inside and bar the teacher out. The teacher, who didn't act on the principle that discretion is the better part of valor, generally got the worst of it. Mr. Douglass soon learned this, and, on April Fool's Day, he would walk to the school, perceive the situation, laughingly announce there would be no school until the morrow, and leave. Our teacher required all pupils to study out loud. There was a pandemonium of spoken words going on all day in the school. Why did he require this? Well, it was to assure himself that no student was listlessly looking on his or her book and that everyone was busy. Every Friday afternoon we had a trapping spelling bee from the blue-backed speller. In this school we studied Smith's Grammar, Goff's Arithmetic, Morse's Geography, and Peter Parley's history. On the first Saturday in May, the school children went, in wagons, to Great Falls to a picnic and seined for shad. The Catawba River teemed with shad in those days.

"The Fourth of July was observed at Caldwell Cross Roads. The military companies of infantry would assembly here from the surrounding counties making up a brigade. A drill and inspection were had, and a dress parade followed. There was an old cannon mounted on the field. The honor of firing it was assigned to Hugh Reed, who had been in the artillery of Napoleon's army at Waterloo and afterward emigrated* to South Carolina.

"A great barbecue and picnic dinner would be served; candidates for military, state, and national offices would speak; hard liquor would flow; and each section would present its 'bully of the woods' in a contest for champion in a fist and skull fight. Butting, biting, eye gouging, kicking, and blows below the belt were barred. It was primitive prize fighting. I recall that a man named McGill won the belt. He was beaten the following year by Smith Harden.

"After crops were laid by, a great deal of visiting took place among neighbors. The men inspected each other's crops and sumptuous dinners and watermelon feasts were exchanged. There was more neighborliness in the country then than now. Everybody went to church on the Sabbath, and children knew by rote the Shorter Catechism. Nearly every home in our community had family worship night and morning.

"There's something I now call to mind as strange. Funerals were never conducted inside of the churches. The ceremonial rites took place at the grave. Yes, I am a surviving Confederate soldier. I was a member of Capt. W. C. Beaty's company, in Governor John Hugh Means' regiment. I was wounded in the battle of South Mountain (Antietam). I was carried a prisoner of war to Baltimore. That was the conclusiion* of so much that was important in my military career.

"When I was a boy, my home town was Blackstock, named for its first postmaster, Edward Blackstock. The boundary line separating Chester and Fairfield Counties runs through the center of the town. Sometimes the post office is in Fairfield and sometimes in Chester. Now the line runs right through the post office, Kennedy's store. I have lived through the following wars in which my country has been engaged: The Mexican War, the War Between the States, the Spanish-American War, and the World War. I have been a constituent of the following Congressman: W. W. Boyce, W. H. Perry, A. S. Wallace, John H. Evins, J. J. Hemphill, T. F. Strait, D. E. Finley, Stanyarne Wilson, Joseph Johnson, W. H. Stevenson, Gen. John Bratton, Paul McCorkle, and the present one, J. P. Richards.

"I do not consider the military occupation and rule of South Carolina, just after the Civil War, unwise or oppressive. The country was demoralized. Disbanded soldiers, Confederates and Federals, passing through the State would have raided the homes of the residents and taken off every mule, horse, and ox, and left them without means of tilling the soil. The provost martial of this district was Capt. Livingston. I never joined the Ku Klux. Yes, there were shortages of food and clothing during the war. Molasses was a substitute for sugar; parched meal and parched ground okra seed were used for coffee; and sassafras roots were used to make tea. Flour and meal sacks were made into men's, women's and children's clothing.

"The radical, carpetbag, scalawag government was inconceivably rotten and corrupt. An executive pardon could be bought; and stealings* were put through the legislature by appropriations and issuance of fradulent* bonds. Under the Constitution of 1865, judges were allowed to state and comment upon the facts and to disclose their opinion of what the verdict of a jury should be. This opinion could be and often was bought with money or its equivalent. A wealthy litigant had three chances, a bribed jury, a bribed circuit judge, and a bribed Supreme Court. A criminal had four chances, the ones I've just mentioned and a bribed governor, who could give him a pardon.

"One of the most interesting political characters evolved in this cess-pool* of iniquitous politics was Judge T. J. Mackey. Born in Lancaster County, of poor parents, he went with them at an early age to Charleston, S. C. By native ability, he won a beneficiary scholarship to the Citadel, the military college of South Carolina. He was a member of the Palmetto Regiment, and he fought through the Mexican War. In the War Between the States, he was an officer on the Staff of General Sterling Price at the close of the war. When the carpetbaggers and Negroes got possession of the State government, he became a scalawag. Bright, witty, forceful, and with a veneer of good breeding, he was rewarded with the position of Judge of the 6th Circuit, and he resided right here in Chester. He was a conspicuous figure on our streets for years. Solomon in all his glory was no better arrayed. He wore broadcloth, Prince Albert coats, silk vests, checked trousers, and tall, silk, top hats, and carried gold-headed canes. During court week, he would have the sheriffs attend him with cocked hat and drawn sword, preceeded* by the bailiffs crying stentoriously*, 'Give way! Give way! The Honorable Court is approaching! He conducted the court proceedings with great pomp, magnificence, and dignity. The suspense of all this dignity was sometimes relieved by his wit and humor from the bench. In his inimitable manner he once addressed the grand jury of Fairfield County at Winnsboro in these words: 'Mr. Foreman and gentlemen of the grand inquest of the county: In addition to what I have already charged, you might extend your investigations into the hotels and boarding houses of Winnsboro and observe the martyrs at their 'steaks,' and also ascertain whether or not certain domestic animals, better known as bedbugs, are entitled to draw pensions from the U. S. Government on account of having drawn blood from British soldiers while they were quartered here in the war of the Revolution.'

"On one occasion Mr. Lindsay, a reputable citizen of Chester, knocked a drunken Negro politician down and was prosecuted in the court for assault and battery with intent to kill. Mr. Lindsay's attorney approached the judge with an idea of finding out what the sentence would be, provided the defendant would plead guilty. Mackey replied, 'You can safely leave the matter to me, sir.'

"When the plea was accepted by the solicitor and read by the clerk, all eyes and ears of the expectant court room* were turned on the judge. He said: 'Let the defendant, Lindsay, stand up. You have been charged in this indictment with an attempt to kill your fellow man. Its not your mercy that the prosecutor is not lying somewhere today in some silent graveyard. I could impose on you the maximum sentence of fifteen years at hard labor in the State penitentiary, but, as you have saved the State some expense by your plea of guilty, the sentence of this august court is that you, William Lindsay, be confined in the State penitentiary at hard labor for a period of ten years (dramatic pause) or pay a fine of one dollar."
__________
* As in the original typed document.

Sources:
Writers Project Interview: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division,
W.P.A. Federal Writers' Project Collection.

Soldiers Record, S. B. Lathan, National Archives, Washington, D.C.

Proceedings of Southern Historical Society; Prince William County Public
Library, Bull Run Branch, Manassas, Virginia.

Family Records, held by George Moore of Chester, S.C. and
William C. Lathan, Jr. of Triangle, Virginia.